Wednesday, March 2, 2011

The Ornithischians- Zhao's nomina nuda part 8

Well, that was a sad month post-wise.  But the good news is that I got my part of the manuscript finished, so now we'll see how the submission goes.  Here's a post to finish the Zhao series, dealing with his ornithischians.  No illustrations are known for the undescribed taxa, and the relationships and post-description data aren't discussed for the four officially described genera.  Sorry about the small text size below and oddly different formatting for Monkonosaurus- Blogger's terrible when it comes to pasting things from Word.  The text looks large and identical in the compose window...

Coming up, the rest of the "suggested phylogenetic definitions" series and a (perhaps not so-)surprise announcement of a new section for the Database I've been working on.

"Tianchungosaurus" Zhao, 1983
Etymology- May have the same etymology as Dianchungosaurus, which refers to the Dianzhong Basin of Yunnan.  Alternatively, Tianzhong would mean "in the fields", but the etymology remains uncertain since the name was not also written in Chinese by Zhao.
Early Jurassic
- Stated to be a pachycephalosaur, but Zhao includes heterodontosaurids and ceratopsians in this group too.  He referred it to his new superfamily Tianchungosauroidea, supposedly ancestral to other marginocephalians and including Heterodontosaurus (which would make the superfamily Heterodontosauroidea instead).  Lambert (1990) believed it may be a misspelling of Dianchungosaurus (then thought to be a heterodontosaurid, since identified as a mesoeucrocodylian), which was also followed by Olshevsky (1991) and The Paleobiology Database. 
Dianchungosaurus? "elegans" Zhao, 1985
Etymology- The species name means elegant.
Hettangian, Early Jurassic
Zhangjiawa Member of the Lufeng Formation, Dianchung, Yunnan, China
- Zhao (1985) stated this was a heterodontosaur, and that chaoyangsaurids evolved from it.  Chure and McIntosh (1989) place this in Pachycephalosauridae and mark this name as sic, perhaps indicating they believe it to be intended as "Tianchungosaurus". Similarly, Olshevsky (1991) notes it may be the intended type species of that genus.
I've kept the above entries separate to better reflect what is known and has been said about each name.  It seems probable "Tianchungosaurus" and Dianchungosaurus? "elegans" refer to the same material, since the other new Jurassic taxa listed by Zhao (1983) are also mentioned in his 1985 paper, both are heterodontosaurs from the Early Jurassic of China, and D and T are similar sounds.  It also seems probable "Tianchungosaurus" is the misspelling, since Zhao did name additional species of other previously named genera (e.g. Megalosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Ichthyosaurus) and two heterodontosaurs having such similar names is unlikely.  What's more uncertain is if "elegans" is actually a heterodontosaurid or is a crocodylian like the type species of Dianchungosaurus is now known to be.  Perhaps it is best placed in Archosauria incertae sedis for now.
"Changdusaurus" Zhang et al., 1982
"Changtusaurus" Zhao, 1983
"Changdusaurus laminaplacodus" Zhao, 1985
"Chendusaurus" Lambert, 1990
"Chengdusaurus" Lambert, 1990
"Changtusaurus laminaplacodus" Chure and McIntosh, 1989
"Changduosaurus laminaplacodus" Fang, Zhang, Lu, Han, Zhao and Li, 2006
Etymology- Changdu is a variant of Qamdo, the county the remains were found in.  The species name refers to thin plates, presumably the dermal plates typical of stegosaurs. 
Middle Jurassic
Middle Dapuka Group, Dabuka, Qamdo County, Tibet, China
- (~7 m) specimen seemingly including dermal plates, and probably ischia and femora
Comments- This was first announced by Zhang et al. (1982), who also gave its length.  Zhao (1985) states that "transitional characters, as exemplified by the Middle Jurassic stegosaurs in Tibet" include flat ischia, a reduced fourth trochanter, and broad, thin dermal plates.  These may thus be characteristics of "Changdusaurus".  Lambert (1990) listed both "Chendusaurus" and "Chengdusaurus" as "perhaps Changdusaurus", but the original source of these variants is unknown.  Glut (1997) incorrectly listed it as being Late Jurassic in age.  Weishampel et al. (2004) list it as "undescribed ?stegosaur".  Fang et al. (2006) indicated it derives from lower in the Dapuka Group than the other reported taxa.  Based on the sequence of spellings, "Changdusaurus" is probably the intended one.
Stated by Zhao (1983) to be an intermediate stegosauroid, it has been assigned to Stegosauridae by later authors (e.g. Chure and McIntosh, 1989; Olshevsky, 1991). Thin plates are only known in the Loricatosaurus+Stegosaurus clade, so may indicate "Changdusaurus" is a member. All stegosaurs have reduced fourth trochanters, though those of stegosaurids are absent.  Ischial thickness is not currently used in stegosaur phylogenetics. 
References- Zhang et al., 1982. The Roof of the World: Exploring the Mysteries of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Harry N. Abrams Inc, New York. 227 pp.
Monkonosaurus lawulacus Zhao vide Dong, 1990
= "Monkonosaurus" Zhao, 1983
= "Monkonosaurus lawulacus" Zhao, 1986
= "Monkonosaurus lawulocus" Dong, 1987
= "Monkosaurus lawulacus" Chure and McIntosh, 1989
Etymology- Monko is a variant of Markam, the county it was discovered in.  Lawulashan is the mountain the material was discovered on.
Early Cretaceous
Lura Formation, Laoran, Markam County, Tibet, China
- (IVPP coll.) (~5 m) two partial vertebrae (lost), sacrum (~311 mm), ilia (~905 mm), three dermal plates (lost)
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1976 by a team from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and originally referred to Zhao's (1983) new thyreophoran ("armatosaurian") superfamily Oligosacralosauroidea, distinguished by its lower number of sacrals than ankylosaurids (3-5, and indeed Monkonosaurus has 5).  The superfamily is invalid as there is no genus "Oligosacralosaurus", and Monkonosaurus has since been universally referred to Stegosauridae.  The taxon was eventually officially described by Dong (1990), and the iliosacral block has been photographed by Dong (1987) and Dong (1990).  Note Dong (1990) is incorrect that Zhao used a species name for the taxon in 1983.  Maidment and Wei (2006) redescribed the material and refigured the now broken iliosacral block, believing the taxon to be indeterminate, a conclusion Maidment repeated in 2010.  Glut (1997) incorrectly credits the official name to Zhao, 1983/6.
References- Zhao,  1986. [unknown title] in Hao, Su, Yu and Li (eds.). The Cretaceous System of China. Stratigraphy of China. 12, 67-73.
Dong, 1987. Dinosaurs from China. Beijing: China Ocean Press. 114 pp.
Dong, 1990. Stegosaurs of Asia. in Carpenter and Currie (eds.).  Dinosaur Systematics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 255-268.
and Wei, 2006. A review of the Late Jurassic stegosaurs (Dinosauria, Stegosauria) from the People’s Republic of China. Geological Magazine. 143(5), 621-634.
Maidment, 2010. Stegosauria: A historical review of the body fossil record and phylogenetic relationships. Swiss Journal of Geosciences. 103, 199-210.

Polysacralosauroidea Zhao, 1983
Comments- Zhao'
s name for Ankylosauria.  Note it is invalid due the absence of a genus "Polysacralosaurus".

Tianchisaurus nedegoapeferima Dong, 1993
= "Tenchisaurus" Dong, 1981
= "Sangonghesaurus" Zhao, 1983
= "Teinchisaurus" Dong, 1987
= "Jurassosaurus nedegoapeferkimorum" Dong vide Holden, 1992
= "Tianchisaurus" Dong, 1992
= Tianchiasaurus Dong, 1993
Etymology- Zhao's genus name refers to the Sangonghe Valley where the remains were discovered.  Dong's genus name refers to Tianchi, the lake it was found near.  The species name is a combination of letters from the beginning of the last names of the main actors of Jurassic Park.
Bathonian-Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Toutunhe Formation, Sangonghe Valley, Fukang County, Xinjiang, China
- (IVPP V10614) (~3 m) skull roof fragment, occipital condyle, fragmentary mandible, axis, third cervical centrum, fifth cervical centrum, seventh cervical centrum,  first dorsal vertebra, third dorsal veertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, dorsal rib fragments, partial sacrum (61, 65, 64, 55, 55, 56, 45 mm), first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra, mid caudal vertebra, scapular fragment, humeral fragment, ilial fragment, incomplete femora, metatarsal II, metatarsal III, metatarsal IV, phalanx III-?, phalanx IV-? , many scutes, tail club
Comments- While Zhao (1983) only indicated "Sangonghesaurus" was a Middle Jurassic (presumably Chinese) ankylosaur, Olshevsky (online, 1997) is probably correct in suspecting it is what was later described as Tianchisaurus by Dong (1992).  This is because Tianchisaurus was discovered in 1974 (by Xinjiang University students), sent to the IVPP in 1976 where Zhao worked, and was discovered in the Sangonghe Valley.  It was assigned to Ankylosauridae by Olshevsky (1991) and Dong (1993). 
Dong, 1981. Vertebrates: 400 million years of evolution in the Chinese continent. Part VI, Reptilia. Yokahama Dinosaur Exhibition. 30-55.
Dong, 1987. Dinosaurs from China. Beijing: China Ocean Press. 114 pp.
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. China Ocean Press (Beijing). 192 pp.
Holden, 1992. Paleontology's `Jurassic' windfall. Science. 258(5090), 1879.
Dong, 1993. An ankylosaur (ornithischian dinosaur) from the Middle Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 31(4), 257-266.
Dong, 1994. Erratum. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 32(2), 142.
Olshevsky, online 1997.
Chaoyangsauridae Zhao, Cheng, Xu and Makovicky, 2006
= "Chaoyoungosauroidea" Zhao, 1983
= "Chaoyoungosauridae" Lambert, 1983
Chaoyangsaurus youngi Zhao, Cheng and Xu, 1999
= "Chaoyoungosaurus" Dong, 1981
= "Chaoyoungosaurus liaosiensis" Zhao, 1985
= "Chaoyangosaurus liaosiensis" Dong, 1987
= "Chaoyangsaurus" Sereno, 1999
= Chaoyangosaurus youngi Weishampel, Barrett, Coria, Le Loeuff, Xu, Zhao, Sahni, Gomani and Noto, 2004
Etymology- Chaoyang is the county it was discovered in.  The original species name refers to Liaoxi, a historical province in what is now Western Liaoning.  The new species name refers to famed Chinese paleontologist Young Zhongjian.
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Tuchengzi Formation, Ershijiazi, Chaoyang County, Liaoning, China
- (IGCAGS V371) partial skull, mandible, axis, six cervical vertebrae, proximal scapula, proximal 
Comments- This was discovered by Cheng in 1976 and eventually officially described by Zhao et al. (1999).  The genus name was originally published by Dong (1981) in a Japanese guidebook.  Dong (1992) incorrectly states it was described by Zhao and Cheng in 1983. 
References- Dong, 1981. Vertebrates: 400 million years of evolution in the Chinese continent. Part VI, Reptilia. Yokahama Dinosaur Exhibition. 30-55.
Lambert, 1983. A Field Guide to the Dinosaurs. Avon Press. 256 pp.
Dong, 1987. Dinosaurs from China. Beijing: China Ocean Press. 114 pp.
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. China Ocean Press (Beijing). 192 pp.
Sereno, 1999. The evolution of dinosaurs. Science. 284(5423), 2137-2147.
Zhao, Cheng and Xu
, 1999. The earliest ceratopsian from the Tuchengzi Formation of Liaoning, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(4), 681-691.
Xuanhuaceratops niei Zhao, Cheng, Xu and Makovicky, 2006
= "Xuanhuasaurus niei" Zhao, 1985
= "Xuanhanosaurus niei" Chure and McIntosh, 1989
= "Xuanhuasaurus nieii" Weishampel, Barrett, Coria, Le Loeuff, Xu, Zhao, Sahni, Gomani and Noto, 2004
Etymology- Xuanhua is the county the material was found in, while the species name honors Nie Rongzhen, who gave the holotype to Zhao and Cheng. 
Late Jurassic
Houcheng Formation, Yanjiagou, Xuanhua County, Hebei, China
- (IVPP V12722) (~1 m; adult) partial skull, partial mandibles, teeth, two cervical centra, dorsal neural arch, dorsal centra, partial sacrum, proximal caudal vertebra, incomplete scapula, partial coracoid, partial humeri (~40 mm), proximal ischium, proximal femur, partial tibia, proximal metatarsal I, proximal metatarsal II, proximal metatarsal III
Paratypes- (IVPP V14527) fragmentary skull, teeth and postcrania
(IVPP V14528) fragmentary skull, teeth and postcrania including atlantal intercentrum and astragalus
(IVPP V14529) partial jaws
Comments- The holotype was discovered in the 1970's and eventually officially described by Zhao et a. (2006).  Note they incorrectly cite Zhao's 1983 paper as including the genus.  The paratypes were discovered in 2003.  Originally noted by Zhao (1985) as a "prototype psittacosaur" and thus presumably a chaoyangsaurid given his 1983 classification.
Reference- Zhao, Cheng, Xu and Makovicky, 2006. A new ceratopsian from the Upper Jurassic Houcheng Formation of Hebei, China. Acta Geologica Sinica. 80(4), 467-473.

1 comment:

  1. That's right, the fossil is not running correctly describes elriesgo of being lost forever because they are not at least documented, photographed and illustrated.

    Thanks for the info Mickey.