Saturday, April 2, 2016

Database update plus Predatory Dinosaurs of the World with phylogenetic nomenclature

Hey fellow 80s kids!  Like me, you probably grew up with Paul's (1988) Predatory Dinosaurs of the World as your first serious non-technical theropod source, along with The Dinosauria.  After raking Peters' horrific theropod phylogeny over the coals and applying current phylogenetic nomenclature for fun, I wondered how the most famous non-technical topology of our time would fare.  So here's Paul's phylogeny from his influential book using the taxonomy from The Theropod Database.  Note a number of his named groups are paraphyletic in his topology (based on overleaf 10-1, with additional details based on his comments in the taxonomic section).  Only species with entries were included.

Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes

|*-Saltopus
|--Lagerpetonidae
|  |--Lagosuchus (inc. Marasuchus)
|  |--Lewisuchus

|  `--Lagerpeton
`--Herrerasauridae

   |--Staurikosaurus
   `--+--Ischisaurus
      `--+--Herrerasauria
         |  |?*Alwalkeria
         |  |?-Protoavis
         |  |--Freguellisaurus
         |  `--+--Aliwalia
         |     `--Herrerasaurus
         `--Avepoda
            |--Procompsognathus
            `--Megalosauria
               |--Spinosauroidea (= Coelophysoidea, Spinosauridae)
               |  |?-Elaphrosaurus
               |  |--Coelophysidae
               |  |  Coelophysis
               |  |  |--rhodesiensis
               |  |  `--bauri
               |  `--Dilophosauridae
               |     |--Liliensternus
               |     `--+--Dilophosaurus
               |        `--+--Baryonychinae
               |           |  Baryonyx
               |           `--Spinosaurinae
               |              Spinosaurus
               `--Neotheropoda (= Averostra, Neoceratosauria, Abelisauroidea, Torvosauridae)
                  |--Ceratosauria (= Ceratosauridae)
                  |  |--Sarcosaurus
                  |  `--Ceratosaurus
                  |     |?-ingens
                  |     `--nasicornis
                  `--Tetanurae (= Abelisauridae, Orionides)
                     |--Megalosauroidea (= Megalosauridae)
                     |  |--+--Megalosaurus
                     |  |  |--Torvosaurus 
                     |  |  `--Poekilopleuron
                     |  `--Abelisauria
                     |     |?-Noasauridae
                     |     |  Noasaurus
                     |     |--Carnotaurinae
                     |     |  Carnotaurus
                     |     `--Abelisaurinae
                     |        Abelisaurus
                     `--+--Eustreptospondylinae
                        |  Eustreptospondylus (inc. Streptospondylus)
                        `--+--Piatnitzkysauridae
                           |  Piatnitzkysaurus
                           `--+--Gasosaurus
                              `--+--Marshosaurus
                                 `--Allosauroidea
                                    |--Metriacanthosauridae (= Sinraptoridae)
                                    |  |--Yangchuanosaurus (inc. Metriacanthosaurus? sp.)
                                    |  `--Metriacanthosaurus (assuming Sinraptor)
                                    `--Avetheropoda (= Neotetanurae, Allosauria, Tyrannoraptora)
                                       |*-Dryptosaurus
                                       |--Compsognathidae
                                       |  Compsognathus
                                       |--Tyrannosauroidea (= Carnosauria)
                                       |  |--Coeluridae
                                       |  |  |--Aristosuchus
                                       |  |  `--Coelurus
                                       |  |--Proceratosauridae
                                       |  |  |--+--Proceratosaurus
                                       |  |  |  `--Pivetaeusaurus 
                                       |  |  |--Rapator
                                       |  |  `--Ornitholestes
                                       |  `--+--Allosauridae
                                       |     |  Allosaurus fragilis (inc. A. atrox, A. amplexus)
                                       |     `--Carcharodontosauridae (= Carcharodontosauria)
                                       |        |--+--Chilantaisaurus
                                       |        |  `--Shaochilong
                                       |        `--+--+--Acrocanthosaurus
                                       |           |  `--Becklespinax
                                       |           `--+--Indosaurus
                                       |              `--+--Labocania
                                       |                 |--Erectopus
                                       |                 |--Carcharodontosaurus
                                       |                 |--Bahariasaurus
                                       |                 `--+--Aublysodontinae
                                       |                    |  |--Aublysodon
                                       |                    |  |--Shanshanosaurus
                                       |                    |  `--Stygivenator
                                       |                    `--+--Indosuchus
                                       |                       `--+--Alioramini
                                       |                          |  Alioramus
                                       |                          `--Tyrannosauridae
                                       |                             |--Albertosaurinae
                                       |                             |  |--Alectrosaurus
                                       |                             |  `--+*-Albertosaurus
                                       |                             |     |--Nanotyrannus
                                       |                             |     `--+--Gorgosaurus
                                       |                             |        `--+--arctunguis
                                       |                             |           `--Dinotyrannus
                                       |                             `--Tyrannosaurinae
                                       |                                |--Daspletosaurus
                                       |                                `--+--Tarbosaurus
                                       |                                   `--Tyrannosaurus
                                       `--Coelurosauria (= Aviremigia, Ornithes)
                                          |--Archaeopterygidae (= Saurornithes)
                                          |  Archaeopteryx
                                          `--Eudromaeosauria
                                             |--Dromaeosauridae (= Dromaeosaurinae)
                                             |  |--Dromaeosaurus
                                             |  `?-Adasaurus
                                             `--Eumaniraptora (= Pennaraptora, Averaptora)
                                                |--Deinonychosauria (= Velociraptorinae)
                                                |  |--Deinonychus
                                                |  `--+--Saurornitholestes
                                                |     `--Velociraptor
                                                `--Avialae
                                                   |?-Ornithomimosauria (= Arctometatarsalia)
                                                   |  |--Harpymimus
                                                   |  `--Ornithomiminae
                                                   |     |?-Deinocheiridae
                                                   |     |  Deinocheirus
                                                   |     |--Garudimimus
                                                   |     `--Ornithomimidae
                                                   |        |*-affinis
                                                   |        |*-Archaeornithomimus
                                                   |        `--+--Struthiomimus 
                                                   |           |?-Ornithomimus
                                                   |           |--Dromiceiomimus
                                                   |           |  |--brevitertius
                                                   |           |  `--samueli
                                                   |           `--Gallimimus
                                                   |--Oviraptorosauria (= Caenagnathiformes)
                                                   |  Caenagnathoidea
                                                   |  |--Caenagnathidae
                                                   |  |  |--Microvenator
                                                   |  |  `--+--Caenagnathinae
                                                   |  |     |  Chirostenotes
                                                   |  |     `--Elmisaurinae
                                                   |  |        Elmisaurus
                                                   |  `--Oviraptoridae
                                                   |     |--Oviraptorinae
                                                   |     |  Oviraptor (assuming Citipati)
                                                   |     `--"Ingeniinae"
                                                   |        "Ingenia"
                                                   `--Maniraptora (= Avimimidae, Paraves)
                                                      |--Troodontidae
                                                      |  |--Troodon
                                                      |  |--Saurornithoides
                                                      |  |--Heptasteornis
                                                      |  `?-Bradycneme  
                                                      `--+--Avimimus
                                                         `--Ornithothoraces (= Avebrevicauda, Ornithopectae)
                                                            |--Enantiornithes
                                                            |  Iberomesornis (assuming Enantiornis)
                                                            `--+--Ichthyornithes (= Ambiortiformes)
                                                               |  |--Ambiortus
                                                               |  `--Ichthyornis
                                                               `--+--Gansuiformes
                                                                  |  Gansus
                                                                  `--+--Hesperornithes
                                                                     |  Hesperornis
                                                                     `--Aves

So how does it fare?  Pretty well, though Herrerasauridae, Megalosauria, Spinosauridae and Tyrannosauridae have definitions that fail.  There are some uncertainties based on the unclear position of ornithomimosaurs, and due to the date there are no taxa between Archaeopteryx and ornithothoracines.  But overall, not bad. 

Among the "Theropod Odds and Ends", Taquet's (1984) taxon has yet to be redescribed but seems to be a coelophysoid, "Labrosaurus" ferox is agreed to be an allosaurid/Allosaurus specimen and maybe a portion of the A. fragilis neotype.  (Magnosaurus) nethercombensis is a megalosauroid, possibly afrovenatorine.  (Duriavenator) hesperis is a megalosaurid.  Xuanhanosaurus seems to be a metriacanthosaurid.  Iliosuchus may be a basal tyrannosauroid or other basal coelurosaurian, which is debated for taxa known from far more than only ilia.  Stokesosaurus is universally agreed to be a basal tyrannosauroid.  Finally, Segisaurus is agreed to be a coelophysoid closer to Coelophysis than Dilophosaurus.

Twenty-third (II) and twenty-second (III) dentary tooth of holotype of Segnosaurus galbinensis (IGM 10/80), after Zanno et al. (2016). Note the weird lingual carina (lc).
Oh, and I updated the Database this month, but less than usual due to coding more in the Lori matrix.  Besides the last sauropodomorph entry  (Ignavusaurus ?= Massospondylus), a couple braincases were added to the Bissekty tyrannosauroid(s?) and named Timurlengia.  Wonder where this falls out in the new tyrannosauroid matrix of Brusatte and Carr (2016).  The Pierre Shale hesperornithoids of Manitoba were clarified by Aotsuka and Sato (2016), with the description of a new species.  Segnosaurus' mandible was also redescribed (Zanno et al., 2016), which I hope is the first of many therizinosaurian redescriptions from them.  It's quite an odd specimen, exhibiting a coronoid process like oviraptorosaurs, no posterior surangular ridge or foramen and TRIcarinate posterior dentary teeth.  Yes, unlike (?)any other theropod, Segnosaurus has a lingual carina with serrations (see above).

References- Taquet, 1984. Two new Jurassic specimens of coelurosaurs (Dinosauria). In Hecht, Ostrom, Viohl and Wellnhofer (eds.). The Beginnings of Birds: Proceedings of the International Archaeopteryx Conference, Eichstaett. 229-232.

Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster. 464 pp.

Aotsuka and Sato, 2016. Hesperornithiformes (Aves: Ornithurae) from the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, southern Manitoba, Canada. Cretaceous Research. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2016.03.003.

Brusatte and Carr, 2016. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs. Scientific Reports. 6, 20252.

Zanno, Tsogtbaatar, Chinzorig and Gates, 2016. Specializations of the mandibular anatomy and dentition of Segnosaurus galbinensis (Theropoda: Therizinosauria). PeerJ. 4:e1885.

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